Disease & Drug Information

Drug Dictionary


IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract

An oligomeric proanthocyanidin extracted from grape seeds. IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract exhibits dose-dependent free-radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL-12-expressing mesenchymal stem cell vaccine GX-051

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a modified form of the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, IL-12-expressing MSC vaccine GX-051 secretes IL-12. IL-12 activates the immune system by both promoting the secretion of interferon-gamma, which activates natural killer cells (NKs), and inducing cytotoxic T-cell responses, which may result in both decreased cell proliferation and increased cell death in tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL13Ralpha2-specific hinge-optimized 41BB-co-stimulatory CAR truncated CD19-expressing autologous T-lymphocytes

A preparation of ex vivo expanded, genetically modified autologous central memory-enriched T-cells (Tcm) transduced with a replication-incompetent, self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector expressing a hinge-optimized, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Ra2), and containing the cluster of differentiation 137 (CD137; 4-1BB) co-stimulatory signaling domain fused to the signaling domain of the T cell antigen receptor complex zeta chain (CD3-zeta), and a truncated form of human cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19t), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral or intracavitary administration, IL13Ra2-specific, hinge-optimized, 41BB-co-stimulatory CAR/truncated CD19 expressing T-lymphocytes are directed to, and induce selective toxicity and cytolysis in IL13Ra2-expressing tumor cells. IL13Ra2, overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types, is associated with increased tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness. The costimulatory signaling domain enhances both proliferation of T cells and antitumor activity. Hinge optimization prevents the recognition and clearance of the CAR by endogenous Fc receptors (FcRs). CD19t is used as a surface marker to both quantify and track the gene-modified T cells in vivo. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL-2 plasmid DNA/lipid complex

An immunotherapeutic agent consisting of a plasmid DNA encoding human Interleukin-2 (IL-2) complexed with a cationic lipid, 1,2-dimyristyloxypropyl-3-dimethyl-hydroxyethyl ammonium bromide/dioleyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DMRIE/DOPE), in a 5:1 ratio. Due to the lipophilic nature of this cation liposome complex, this gene transfer system may improve the efficiency of introducing the IL-2 gene into the cells, thereby increasing the production of IL-2 and inducing an immune response. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL-2 recombinant fusion protein ALT-801

A recombinant protein consisting of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) fused to a humanized soluble T-cell receptor (TCR) directed against a tumor suppressor p53-derived antigen with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. The TCR moiety of IL-2 recombinant fusion protein ALT-801 binds to tumor cells displaying p53 epitope/MHC complexes; subsequently, the tumor cell-localized IL-2 moiety may stimulate natural killer (NK) cell and T cell cytotoxic immune responses against p53-expressing tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL-2/Lptn gene-modified allogeneic neuroblastoma tumor cell vaccine

A cancer vaccine consisting of allogeneic neuroblastoma tumor cells have been genetically modified to secrete the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the human chemokine lymphotactin (Lptn) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, IL-2 and Lptn are secreted by the IL-2/Lptn gene-modified allogeneic neuroblastoma tumor cell vaccine, potentially enhancing the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response elicited by vaccine neuroblastoma tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) against host neuroblastoma tumor cells. Produced by activated progenitor T cells, Lptn belongs to the C chemokine subfamily and is a potent chemotactic factor for lymphocytes; IL-2 stimulates natural killer (NK) cells and may enhance a vaccine-elicited CTL immune response against tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

IL4-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein PRX321

A fusion protein consisting of the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) linked to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon specific, high-affinity binding to IL-4 receptors (IL-4Rs) located on the tumor cell surface., IL4-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein PRX321 is internalized; the exotoxin moiety then binds to translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2), which may result in ADP ribosylation, deactivation of EF-2, inhibition of protein synthesis, and tumor cell apoptosis. The Pseudomonas exotoxin moiety of this agent has been engineered to reduce non-specific binding to cells expressing its receptor, the multiligand cell surface receptor alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha 2MR/LRP). IL-4R is a type I transmembrane protein that binds IL-4 and IL-13 and may be overexpressed by cancers such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and glioma. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ilaprazole

A substituted benzimidazole prodrug with selective and irreversible proton pump inhibitor activity. A weak base, ilaprazole accumulates in the acidic environment of the secretory canaliculus of the gastric parietal cell where it is converted to an active sulfenamide form that binds to cysteine sulfhydryl groups on the luminal aspect of the proton pump hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase), thereby inhibiting the pump's activity and the parietal cell secretion of H+ ions into the gastric lumen, the final step in gastric acid production. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ilopan

(Other name for: dexpanthenol cream)

iloprost

A prostacyclin analogue with potential chemopreventive activity. Iloprost binds to the prostacyclin receptor in various target cells, thereby causing vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and decreased tumor cell adhesion to endothelium among other effects. Prostacyclin is a naturally occurring eicosanoid with anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, and anti-metastatic properties. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ilorasertib

An orally bioavailable, adenosine triphospate mimetic, and inhibitor of Aurora kinases, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRs), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ilorasertib selectively binds to and inhibits Aurora kinases A, B and C, which may disrupt both the assembly of the mitotic spindle apparatus and chromosome segregation, and inhibit both cellular division and proliferation in Aurora kinase-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, ilorasertib selectively binds to and inhibits VEGFRs and PDGFRs, which may result in the inhibition of both angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation in VEGFR/PDGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. This agent also inhibits the Src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Aurora kinases A, B and C, are serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control and are overexpressed by a wide variety of tumor cell types. Both VEGFRs and PDGFRs are receptor tyrosine kinase families whose members may be upregulated in various tumor cell types. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Ilotycin

(Other name for: erythromycin)

Imagent

(Other name for: perflubron)

imalumab

A human, recombinant monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), with potential immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, imalumab binds to MIF, blocking its activity and preventing the MIF-mediated secretion of certain cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. This may lead to an inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in MIF-overexpressing tumor cells. MIF, a pro-inflammatory cytokine overexpressed in some cancers, plays a key role in inflammation, immune responses and cancer cell proliferation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imatinib mesylate

The mesylate salt of imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity. Imatinib binds to an intracellular pocket located within tyrosine kinases (TK), thereby inhibiting ATP binding and preventing phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of growth receptors and their downstream signal transduction pathways. This agent inhibits TK encoded by the bcr-abl oncogene as well as receptor TKs encoded by the c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) oncogenes. Inhibition of the bcr-abl TK results in decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in malignant cells of Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) hematological malignancies such as CML and ALL; effects on c-kit TK activity inhibit mast-cell and cellular proliferation in those diseases overexpressing c-kit, such as mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Imbruvica

(Other name for: ibrutinib)

imetelstat sodium

The sodium salt of imetelstat, a synthetic lipid-conjugated, 13-mer oligonucleotide N3' P5'-thio-phosphoramidate with potential antineoplastic activity. Complementary to the template region of telomerase RNA (hTR), imetelstat acts as a competitive enzyme inhibitor that binds and blocks the active site of the enzyme (a "telomerase template antagonist"), a mechanism of action which differs from that for the antisense oligonucleotide-mediated inhibition of telomerase activity through telomerase mRNA binding. Inhibition of telomerase activity in tumor cells by imetelstat results in telomere shortening, which leads to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imexon

A 2-cyanoaziridine derivative with antitumor activity in multiple myeloma. Although its mechanism of action is not clearly known, imexon may induce apoptosis via a pathway involving cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, and/or caspase-8. Other cytotoxic mechanisms of action of this agent may involve thiol depletion, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imidazole mustard

A synthetic derivative of imidazole with potent antineoplastic properties. Imidazole mustard alkylates DNA, preferentially at guanine residues, resulting in DNA interstrand crosslinks and inhibition of DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imidazolyl ethanamide pentandioic acid

An orally bioavailable small molecule, with potential hematopoiesis inducing and antiviral activities. Upon oral administration, myelo001 stimulates the differentiation of bone marrow cells of the leukocytic, lymphocytic, and erythrocytic lineages, and prevents apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. This prevents chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN), inhibits the risk of infections, increases tolerance and allows for the continuation of the neutropenia-inducing chemotherapeutic agent. In addition, myelo 001 has antiviral properties. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

imipenem

A broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic beta-lactam carbapenem derived from thienamycin, produced by Streptomyces cattleya. Imipenem binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. PBPs are enzymes that are involved in the last stages of assembling the bacterial cell wall and in reshaping the cell wall during growth and division. This inactivation results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and eventually causes cell lysis. Imipenem has the greatest affinity for PBP 1A, 1B, and 2, and its lethal effect is related to binding to PBP 2 and 1B. This antibiotic is active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and is stable in the presence of beta-lactamases. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imiquimod

A synthetic agent with immune response modifying activity. As an immune response modifier (IRM), imiquimod stimulates cytokine production, especially interferon production, and exhibits antitumor activity, particularly against cutaneous cancers. Imiquimod's proapoptotic activity appears to be related to Bcl-2 overexpression in susceptible tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

imisopasem manganese

A manganese-based non-peptidyl mimetic of the human mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), with potential antioxidant and chemo/radioprotective activities. Upon administration, imisopasem manganese mimics the activity of MnSOD and scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion, which prevents oxygen free radical damage to macromolecules such as DNA. This reduces ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation, prevents apoptosis and protects against oxygen free radical-induced toxicity in normal tissues. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Imitrex

(Other name for: sumatriptan succinate)

Imlygic

(Other name for: talimogene laherparepvec)

immediate-release afuresertib

An immediate-release (IR) tablet formulation containing afuresertib, an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of the IR formulation, afuresertib binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt, which may result in the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, decreased tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis in Akt-expressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immediate-release onapristone

An immediate-release (IR) formulation of onapristone, an orally bioavailable progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist, with antineoplastic activity. Onapristone binds to the PR and inhibits both PR activation and the associated expression of PR-responsive genes. This may inhibit PR-mediated proliferative effects in cancer cells overexpressing PR. PR is expressed in certain cancer cell types and plays a key role in proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

ImmTher

(Other name for: disaccharide tripeptide glycerol dipalmitoyl)

Immucell WGP

(Other name for: beta-glucan)

Immun-Aid

(Other name for: arginine/omega-3 fatty acids/nucleotides oral supplement)

immunoadjuvant QS-DG

A synthetic saponin, chemically identical to the natural saponin QS-21, with immunoadjuvant activity. When co-administered with vaccine antigens, immunoadjuvant QS-DG may increase total antitumoral vaccine-specific antibody responses and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Immunocal

(Other name for: whey protein isolate)

immunoconjugate RO5479599

An immunoconjugate containing a glycoengineered, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, RO5479599 binds to the extracellular domain of HER3 and inhibits HER3 dimerization; thereby, preventing EGFR-dependent signaling. In addition, RO5479599 stimulates the immune system to exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). This may decrease proliferation of HER3-overexpressing tumor cells. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors; it has no active kinase domain but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family, such as HER2. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

immunocytokine NHS-IL12

A fusion protein consisting of the heavy-chains of the human antibody NHS76, raised against DNA released by necrotic tumor cells, and fused to two molecules of a genetically modified human interleukin-12 (IL-12) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of immunocytokine NHS-IL12 binds to DNA released from necrotic tumor cells located primarily at the core of necrotic solid tumors, thereby delivering the IL-12 moiety. In turn, the IL-12 moiety of this agent stimulates the host immune system to mount an immune response against tumor cells, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. IL-12 is a proinflammatory cytokine with numerous immunoregulatory functions and may augment host immune responses to tumor cells. By targeting tumor cells, NHS-IL-12 may reduce the toxicity associated with systemic administration of recombinant human IL-12. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunocytokine NHS-IL2-LT

A fusion protein consisting of a mouse-human chimeric antibody directed against DNA released by necrotic tumor cells fused to two molecules of a genetically modified human interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of immunocytokine NHS-IL2-LT binds to DNA released by necrotic tumor cells located primarily at the core of necrotic solid tumors, delivering the IL-2 moiety. In turn, the IL-2 moiety of this agent activates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against nearby tumor cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunological adjuvant OPT-821

A purified, natural saponin isolated from the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria Molina with potential immunoadjuvant activity. When co-administered with vaccine peptides, OPT-821 may increase the antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses against the targeted antigen(s). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunomodulator OHR/AVR118

A peptide-nucleic acid immunomodulator with proinflammatory, broad-spectrum antiviral, and potential antineoplastic activities. Immunomodulator OHR/AVR118 stimulates the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-y, IL-1b, IL-6 and TNF-a. This agent may reduce HIV-1 p24 antigen; viral reverse transcriptase activity; syncitial cell formation; and viral mRNA in infected PBMCs and human CD4+ lymphocyte H9 cells, and may decrease viral loads and increase CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts in HIV patients. In vitro, immunomodulator OHR/AVR118 has been shown to induce the maturation of HL60 leukemic cells and to inhibit the invasive and metastatic properties of a highly malignant breast cancer cell line. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunomodulatory agent CC-11006

A proprietary, orally available, small molecule and thalidomide analog, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. CC-11006 appears to have a similar mechanism to thalidomide and may modulate the expression of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

immunotherapeutic combination product CMB305

An immunotherapeutic combination product composed of LV305, an engineered lentiviral vector that both targets dendritic cells (DCs) and contains nucleic acids encoding the human tumor-associated cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1), and G305, a cancer vaccine comprised of an NY-ESO-1 recombinant protein and glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA)-stable emulsion (GLA-SE), with potential synergistic immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal administration of LV305, the DC-targeting lentiviral vector targets and binds to dermal DCs via the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) receptor. Upon internalization of the vector, the NY-ESO-1 protein is expressed, which stimulates DC maturation, and activates the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against NY-ESO-1-expressing cells; this may result in tumor cell lysis. Upon the sequential intramuscular injection of G305, the adjuvant portion of G305 binds to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expressed on various immune cells, including DCs, monocytes, macrophages and B-cells. The activated DCs present the NY-ESO-1 antigen to CD4-positive Th1 T-lymphocytes. The induction of antigen-specific CD4-positive T-lymphocytes further induces a CTL response against NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells. In addition, G305 induces an NY-ESO-1-specific antibody response. NY-ESO-1, expressed in normal testes and on the surfaces of various tumor cells, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

immunotherapeutic GSK1572932A

An immunotherapeutic containing a proprietary adjuvant system combined with a melanoma-associated antigen peptide MAGE-A3 epitope with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Intramuscular administration with GSK1572932A may stimulate the immune system to exert both humoral and cellular immune responses against MAGE-A3-expressing tumor cells. MAGE-A3, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, head and neck cancer, and bladder cancer. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)