Disease & Drug Information

Drug Dictionary

VAC regimen

A regimen consisting of vincristine, dactinomycin and cyclophosphamide, which is used for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and ovarian germ cell tumors. (NCI Thesaurus)

vaccine-sensitized draining lymph node cells

Cells isolated from lymph nodes from patients, and activated in vitro to generate tumor-specific effector T cells. Lymph nodes in the lymphatics draining tumors often contain T cells that are immunologically sensitized but functionally deficient. Vaccine-sensitized draining lymph node cells are prepared by isolating these lymphocytes in vitro and stimulating them with cytokines to differentiate into mature effector cells. Vaccine-draining lymph node cells may also be produced by pharmacological activation of lymph node-derived lymphocytes with drugs such as ionomycin or with bacterial toxin; these activated lymphocytes may be expanded in culture with cytokines such as interleukin-2 prior to infusion into the patient. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR)

A highly tumor-selective vaccinia virus (vv) with an engineered double deletion (DD) of the thymidine kinase (tk) and vaccinia growth factor genes and additions of both a cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and a somatostatin receptor (SR) gene with potential oncolytic viral activity. The tk and vaccinia growth factor gene deletions in intratumorally administered vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR) help to restrict its replication and cytolytic activity to tumor cells with large nucleotide pools and tumor cells with activation of the EGFR-Ras pathway. Addition of the CD gene to the viral genome allows control of oncolytic viral infection through the administration of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), converted by CD to the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in cells infected with this agent. Addition of the SR gene allows anatomical localization of vaccinia virus (vvDD-CDSR) through the use of octreotide scintigraphy. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vaccinia-tyrosinase vaccine

A vaccine consisting of recombinant vaccinia virus, based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), that encodes the melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase. Vaccination with vaccinia-tyrosinase may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells expressing tyrosinase. Tyrosinase is a melanoma-specific differentiation agent that catalyzes the synthesis of the melanin precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vaccinium myrtillus/Macleaya cordata/Echinacea angustifolia extract granules

A proprietary suspension formulation prepared from granules of standardized extracts from the fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus, the aerial parts of Macleaya cordata and the roots of Echinacea angustifolia, with potential anti-mucositis, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. The main active ingredients of this formulation include anthocyanosides and procyanidins, benzophenanthridinic alkaloids, and alkylamides from V. myrtillus, M. cordata and E. angustifolia extracts, respectively. Upon administration in the mucosal cavity, the anthocyanosides scavenge free radicals, form a protective barrier on the mucosa, and protect the integrity of the capillary vessels; the benzophenanthridine alkaloids prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting NF-kB and may halt the growth of microorganisms; the alkylamides inhibit cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase thereby blocking productions of prostaglandin and leukotriene. Furthermore, alkylamides modulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and other cytokines involved in inflammation processes through cannabinoid type 2 receptors and as cannabinomimetics they may also exert analgesic activity. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

vadastuximab talirine

An immunoconjugate consisting of a humanized monoclonal antibody that is engineered to contain cysteine residues that are conjugated to the synthetic, DNA cross-linking, pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer SGD-1882, via the protease-cleavable linker maleimidocaproyl-valine-alanine dipeptide, with potential antineoplastic activity. The monoclonal antibody portion of the vadastuximab talirine specifically binds to the cell surface antigen CD33. This causes the internalization of vadastuximab talirine, and the release of the cytotoxic moiety SGD-1882. SGD-1882 binds to and crosslinks DNA, which results in both cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis in CD33-expressing tumor cells. CD33, a transmembrane receptor, is expressed on myeloid leukemia cells. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


A fused tricyclic analogue of flavone acetic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Vadimezan induces the cytokines tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-alpha), serotonin and nitric oxide, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis and a decrease in angiogenesis. This agent also stimulates the anti-tumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: diethylstilbestrol)


(Other name for: therapeutic estradiol)


The hydrochloride salt of the L-valyl ester of the antiviral drug acyclovir. Orally administered, valacyclovir is rapidly converted to acyclovir which inhibits viral DNA replication after further conversion to the nucleotide analog acyclovir triphosphate by viral thymidine kinase, cellular guanyl cyclase, and a number of other cellular enzymes. Acyclovir triphosphate competitively inhibits viral DNA polymerase; incorporates into and terminates the growing viral DNA chain; and inactivates viral DNA polymerase. The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with varicellla-zoster virus (VZV) is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by HSV thymidine kinase. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: mechlorethamine hydrochloride gel)


(Other name for: valganciclovir)


A sulfonamide derivative and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. Valdecoxib selectively binds to and inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, thereby preventing the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, which are involved in the regulation of pain, inflammation, and fever. This NSAID does not inhibit COX-1 at therapeutic concentrations and therefore does not interfere with blood coagulation. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Valeriana officinalis extract

An herbal extract isolated from the root of the plant Valeriana officinalis with sedative and anxiolytic activities. Valeriana officinalis extract contains four distinct classes of phytochemical constituents: volatile oils; sesquiterpenoids, including valerenic acid and its hydroxyl and acetoxyl derivative; valepotriates; and volatile pyridine alkaloids. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been established, the sequiterpenoids in Valeriana officinalis extract, particularly valerenic acid, appear to account for its sedative and anxiolytic effects. Valerenic acid is both a subtype-selective GABA-A receptor agonist and a 5HT-5A receptor partial agonist. The sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepines are GABA-A receptor agonists. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


A synthetic prodrug of ganciclovir, a nucleoside analogue of 2'-deoxyguanosine, with antiviral activity. After phosphorylation, valganciclovir is incorporated into DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, viral DNA synthesis, and viral replication. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: divalproex sodium)

valproic acid

A synthetic derivative of propylpentanoic acid with antiepileptic properties and potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenesis activities. In epilepsy, valproic acid appears to act by increasing the concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. This agent's antitumor and antiangiogenesis activities may be related to the inhibition of histone deacetylases and nitric oxide synthase, which results in the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


A semisynthetic derivative of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin. With a mechanism of action that appears to differ from doxorubicin, valrubicin is converted intracytoplasmically into N-trifluoroacetyladriamycin, which interacts with topoisomerase II, stabilizing the complex between the enzyme and DNA; consequently, DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis are inhibited and the cell cycle is arrested in the G2 phase. In addition, this agent accumulates in the cell cytoplasm where it inhibits protein kinase C (PKC). Valrubicin is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin when administered systemically; applied topically, this agent shows excellent tissue penetration. Structurally, the trifluoro-acetyl moiety on the amino group of the glycoside and the valerate moiety appear to result in a lipophilicity that is greater than of doxorubicin, resulting in increased intracytoplasmic concentrations. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


An orally active nonpeptide triazole-derived antagonist of angiotensin (AT) II with antihypertensive properties. Valsartan selectively and competitively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 subtype receptor in vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal gland, preventing AT II-mediated vasoconstriction, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, and renal reabsorption of sodium, and resulting in vasodilation, increased excretion of sodium and water, a reduction in plasma volume, and a reduction in blood pressure. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


An analogue of cyclosporin-A. Valspodar inhibits p-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance efflux pump, thereby restoring the retention and activity of some drugs in some drug-resistant tumor cells. This agent also induces caspase-mediated apoptosis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: valrubicin)


(Other name for: valacyclovir)

VAMP Regimen

A chemotherapy regimen consisting of vincristine, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin), methotrexate and prednisone used in combination with radiation therapy for the treatment of low-risk childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)


(Other name for: beclomethasone dipropionate)


An orally bioavailable 4-anilinoquinazoline. Vandetanib selectively inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), thereby blocking VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and migration and reducing tumor vessel permeability. This agent also blocks the tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates tumor cell proliferation and migration and angiogenesis. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

Vanicream Sunscreen SPF 60

(Other name for: titanium dioxide/zinc oxide sunscreen cream SPF 60)


(Other name for: fluocinonide cream)


(Other name for: histrelin acetate)


A monoclonal antibody directed against the Wnt signaling pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Vantictumab binds to certain receptors in the Wnt signaling pathway thereby preventing the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. This may result in an inhibition of cancer stem cell (CSC) activity and a subsequent inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. The Wnt signaling pathway is dysregulated in many cancer cell types and appears to play a major role in CSC regulation and activity; CSC are tumor initiating cells that are able to self-renew and are responsible for tumor growth and resistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.


(Other name for: cefpodoxime proxetil)


(Other name for: hepatitis A vaccine)

vardenafil hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt form of vardenafil, a benzenesulfonamide derivative and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor with vasodilatory activity. Vardenafil selectively inhibits PDE5, thus inhibiting the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) found in the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum of the penis. The inhibition of cGMP degradation results in prolonged muscle relaxation, vasodilation, and blood engorgement of the corpus cavernosa, thereby prolonging penile erection. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


A partial agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype alpha4beta2. Nicotine stimulation of central alpha4beta2 nAChRs located at presynaptic terminals in the nucleus accumbens causes the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which may be associated with the experience of pleasure; nicotine addiction constitutes a physiologic dependence related to this dopaminergic reward system. As an AChR partial agonist, varenicline attenuates the craving and withdrawal symptoms that occur with abstinence from nicotine but is not habit-forming itself. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: nintedanib)

varicella vaccine

A live attenuated virus vaccine used to prevent chickenpox and shingles, which is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

varicella zoster virus strain Oka/Merck live antigen

A sterile, lyophilized preparation of the Oka/Merck strain of the live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV), that can be used to prevent varicella, commonly known as chickenpox, or herpes zoster (HZ), commonly known as shingles. Upon reconstitution and subcutaneous vaccination with the VZV strain Oka/Merck live antigen, this vaccine induces antigen-specific T-cell and B-cell immune responses against the VZV, thereby protecting against VZV infection. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)


(Other name for: varicella zoster virus strain Oka/Merck live antigen)


(Other name for: varicella vaccine)


(Other name for: human varicella zoster immune globulin)